David Livingstone – Scottish Missionary and Explorer

David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 Might 1873) was a Scottish doctor, pioneer, Christian missionary, African explorer and anti-slavery crusader who became a person of the most well-liked British heroes of the late 19th-century, Victorian period via his mission to access new peoples in the interior of Africa by “Christianity, commerce, and civilization”.

Livingstone advocated for the establishment of British commercial trade, colonial expansion and religious missions in central Africa that would displace the slave trade carried out by the Portuguese.

His explorations ultimately, contributed to the “Scramble for Africa” and African nationalism.

Early Qualifications

David Livingstone was just one of seven little ones who lived in a single home in the mill city of Blantyre, Scotland, in a tenement creating for the employees of a cotton factory on the banking companies of the River Clyde.

In 1823, at the age of ten, he was used in the cotton mill of Henry Monteith & Co. in Blantyre Performs wherever he and his brother John labored 14-hour workdays as piecers, tying broken cotton threads on the spinning equipment.


His zeal for instruction motivated him to show up at Blantyre village college, together with other mill young children, despite his extensive function hours, to improve his future career potential clients.

Livingstone’s get the job done ordeals in the cotton mill from ages 10 to 26 to assistance his bad relatives taught him to persevere from all odds and he produced a purely natural empathy with all who labor and endure.

An appeal by British and American church buildings in 1834 for competent healthcare missionaries in China built Livingstone determined to pursue that profession even though however doing the job in the mill.

He started conserving revenue to enter Anderson’s University, Glasgow in 1836 (now College of Strathclyde), as perfectly as attending Greek and theology lectures at the College of Glasgow.

In 1838, he was approved by the London Missionary Culture (LMS) for work in China and began scientific tests in clinical observe, midwifery, and botany at the Charing Cross Hospital Professional medical Faculty and in Ongar, Essex to acquire his missionary education.

He experienced as a Licentiate of the School (now Royal University) of Medical professionals and Surgeons of Glasgow on 16 November, 1840 and was manufactured an Honorary Fellow of the Faculty, on 5 January 1857.

Early Influences

The Opium War began in 1839 and lasted until 1842 which designed China missions complicated.

A speech in 1840, by Robert Moffat, Scottish, Congregationalist missionary in southern Africa and his future father-in-regulation, convinced him that Africa was the place he must serve.

He was also influenced by abolitionist, T.F. Buxton’s arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed by the impact of “reputable trade” and the distribute of Christianity.

On November 20, 1840, he was ordained as a missionary and established sail for Cape Town South Africa, then set out for Kuruman station where Moffat had worked among the Bechuana men and women.

Expeditions in Africa

David Livingstone undertook three big African expeditions and through his travels, he developed a track record as a dedicated Christian, a courageous explorer, and a dedicated antislavery advocate.

He taken care of the natives with regard, and the tribes he frequented, returned his respect with religion and loyalty.

In January, 1845, David Livingstone married Mary Moffat (12 April 1821 – 27 April 1862) who was the daughter of Scottish missionary, Robert Moffat.

Mary spent her early lifestyle at Kuruman station and her awareness of numerous African languages served their missionary travels via the African interior.

1st Expedition

In 1849, he traveled to Lake Ngami with William Cotton Oswell and achieved the upper Zambezi River for the to start with time in 1851.

In 1853, he made his objective distinct: “I shall open up a path into the inside, or perish.”

From 1853-56 his expedition crossed southern Africa from coast to coastline where he discovers the breathtaking waterfall which he named Victoria Falls to honor Queen Victoria in 1855.

Livingstone returned to England in 1856 and obtained a hero’s welcome, a gold medal from the Royal Geographic Society, an honorary doctorate from Oxford College and a non-public viewers with Queen Victoria.

2nd Expedition

On his second expedition, Livingstone discovers Lake Malawi and reached the mouth of the Zambezi River in what is now Mozambique on the Indian Ocean in May well, 1856.

The Zambezi River connected the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique who ended up providing slaves to Brazil, who in convert bought them to Cuba and the United States.

Pursuing the dying of his spouse in 1862 and the decline of his assistants, Livingstone uttered his renowned quote: “I am well prepared to go any place, furnished it be forward.”

3rd Expedition

The third expedition of 1866-73, he explored central Africa in an attempt to come across the resource of the Nile.

On discovering the Lualaba River he mistakenly concluded it was the significant part of the Nile River.

Henry Morton Stanley

From 1866, Livingstone dropped get hold of with the outside earth and the London Day by day Telegraph and New York Herald developed a transatlantic undertaking to deliver journalist, Henry Morton Stanley to Africa to obtain him.

Stanley observed Livingstone alive in close proximity to Lake Tanganyika in Oct 1871, greeting him with the now popular quote, “Dr Livingstone, I presume?”

With these 4 words, David Livingstone became immortal.

Livingstone answered: “Of course, and I really feel thankful that I am in this article to welcome you.”

On March 14, 1872, Stanley departed for England pleading unsuccessfully, for Livingstone to return with him.

Loss of life

Livingstone became significantly sick and took his remaining breaths although kneeling in prayer at his bedside from inner bleeding owing to dysentery and malaria on May 1, 1873, at the age of 60, in Chief Chitambo’s Village, near Lake Bangweulu, North Rhodesia (now Zambia).

Britain required Livingstone’s entire body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe slash his coronary heart out and put a take note on the entire body that mentioned, “You can have his body, but his coronary heart belongs in Africa!”

His heart was buried less than a Mvula tree around the place where by he died and his body was mummified

His entire body and his journal, were carried around a thousand miles (1,600 km) by his loyal attendants, Chuma and Susi, to the coastal town of Bagamoyo to be returned to Britain.

Henry Stanley was a pallbearer at Livingstone’s funeral.

His remains were interred at Westminster Abbey with the inscription on his tomb reading through, “Brought by faithful hands over land and sea,”

His exploration journey’s vastly greater geographical know-how of central and southern Africa and enabled significant locations to be mapped.